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The commonest genital defect in males is abnormal opening of the external urinary meatus or hole. This is termed as hypospadias or epispadias depending whether the opening is on the under surface or over the penis. Hypospadias i.e. opening under and short of the normal tip is mostly associated with curvature or bending of the penis. The child passes urine in the downward and backward direction. The external opening may be small and constricted. The size of the penis may also be small. Absent vagina in female child also requires plastic surgery.
Plastic surgery is done around three to five years of age for hypospadias. Single or multistage procedures are done. Reconstruction of vagina is undertaken at or near puberty.
Results of the surgery:
The surgery helps to straighten the penis making it sexually functional and the abnormal opening is restored at or near the tip. Vaginal reconstruction helps to restore the female identity.